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  1. Seismic Safety Analysis and Upgrading of Operating Nuclear Power Plants
  2. chapter and author info
  3. Design of Nuclear Power Plants | Nuclear Safety Info

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Havskov, Instrumentation in Earthquake Seismology instrument. See also: El Centro Earthquake.

Seismic Safety Analysis and Upgrading of Operating Nuclear Power Plants

Fundamental Frequency of a Tall Building. Richter magnitude of a local earthquake ML. Shock response spectrum of base acceleration time history. Source Code. Synthesis of a time history to satisfy a shock response spectrum specification. The time history consists of damped sinusoids. This program is intended mainly for modal transient analysis. Synthesis of a time history to satisfy a shock response spectrum specification using wavelets. This program is particularly useful for shaker shock testing. Synthesis of a time history to satisfy a shock response spectrum using wavelets with zero time delay.

The resulting acceleration time history somewhat resembles an actual seismic waveform. Synthesis of a time history to satisfy a shock response spectrum using wavelets with random time delays. This program could be used either for shaker shock or for a modal transient analysis. Synthesis of a time history to satisfy a shock response spectrum specification using wavelets including a specified ZPA.

chapter and author info

Newsletters with Earthquake Articles Issue. January shofar1. It should be recognised that use of methodologies developed for the justification of the seismic safety of operating plants does not ensure the compliance with design basis requirements and cannot be directly applied for VVER plants. The qualification of the nuclear power plant have been executed for the newly defined design basis earthquake by applying procedures and criteria for the design, combined with the methods and techniques developed for seismic re-evaluation of operating nuclear power plants.

The selection and use of methodologies has been graded in accordance with safety and seismic classification of the SSCs. After implementing the measures for design basis reconstitution, the achieved level of safety has been quantified via seismic PSA, which provides the core damage frequency.

Thorium and the Future of Nuclear Energy

The question of the safe continuation of operation became very important as the World largest Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant was shutdown for long-term after Niigata-Chuetsu-Oki earthquake in that caused a 0. The justification of the safety took two years. The decision on the continuation of the operation is rather simple if the earthquake does not exceed the operational base OBE level. The case becomes more difficult if the OBE-level is exceeded and there are obvious damages in place.

Obviously, the judgement on the continuation of operation should be based on the set of information regarding capability of SSCs to survive an earthquake and on the post-event inspections, tests and analyses. It would be very reasonable to have in advance an assessment method for the plant status to ensure the effectiveness of the post-earthquake walk-downs and other actions, and to limit the time of shutdown. The methods for judgement on the safe continuation of operation can be developed on the basis of the design information. The results of the seismic probabilistic safety analysis seismic PSA or margin assessment provide useful additional information regarding weak-links.

The design provides deterministic type information that no failure or damage should be expected if the earthquake loads do not exceed the design base level. However, the probability of damage is not zero even if the loads are less than the design base one. The seismic PSA provides the core damage frequency as the output of the analysis, which is a measure of the seismic safety. The PSA is generally failure oriented. The seismic PSA shows the weak links.

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This knowledge can be very useful for the planning of the post-event inspections. Similar information is provided by the seismic margin analysis, which quantifies the capability of the plant to survive an event greater than the design basis one. European Commission, NRC, For the new plants, it has to be demonstrated that the plant has sufficient margins with respect to the design basis extension earthquake loads of and avoiding the cliff-edge effect. Consequently, the lessons learned from the former projects for evaluation of the seismic safety and upgrading of operating plants are still of great practical importance.

Objective of the recent Chapter is to provide practical insights to the re-evaluation and upgrading of seismic safety of operating plants. State-of-the-art methodologies have to be implemented in every aspect of the re-evaluation and upgrading process. The optimisation of the measures from logistics point of view is very important under the condition of an operating plant.

These documents focus mainly on the methodologies for seismic safety evaluation that do not involve a change in the design basis earthquake. In this Chapter the case of seismic evaluation and upgrading methodologies and solutions are presented. The Chapter includes the case for upgrading of an operating nuclear power plant originally not designed for earthquake. Based on the graded approach, the feasibility of the application of seismic design methods combined with those developed for the re-evaluation of existing plants is demonstrated. New areas of the seismic safety evaluation of operating plants are also addressed in the Chapter that were triggered by recent events, the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant and the Fukushima Dai-ichi plant, that are focusing on the assessment and assurance of the beyond design base capability of the nuclear power plants, periodic review of safety, etc.

Section 2 of this Chapter defines the basic principles of seismic safety. Section 3 provides an overview of the methodologies applicable: Section 3. Section 3. Sections 3. Section 4 is devoted to the pre-earthquake preparedness and post-earthquake actions.

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  • The practical and full scope example of seismic re-evaluation and upgrading is shown in Section 5. Section 6 and 7 are related to the maintenance of the seismic qualification during operation and periodic safety reviews. Extensive list of references is provided to the Chapter in Section 8. The fundamental safety objective of design and operation of nuclear power plant is to protect human life and environment in case of any malfunctions, failures of the plant systems, structures and components which may occur during the plant lifetime including those caused by rarely occurring earthquakes.

    The generic approach for ensuring this safety objective is the application of the concept of the defence in depth. In accordance with this concept, the following requirements are applicable:. Means, plans and procedures have to be in place for on-site and off-site emergency response to mitigate the consequences of accidents that result from failure of safety features and accident management measures in case of severe earthquakes.

    Site investigations and evaluation of the site seismic hazard, including hazards caused by the earthquake, like soil liquefaction;. The basic safety functions, i. Traditionally the design of the nuclear facilities adapted the two-level concept: design for safety, using a high-level seismic excitation for design basis and design for production, using a moderate level of seismic excitation for operational limit.

    The design base earthquake has to be defined with quite low probability of exceedance during operating time. It is called Sicherheitserdbeben , i. The shutdown and cool-down of the reactor, the continuous heat removal from the irradiated fuel in the reactor core and spent fuel pool , and the limitation of releases have to be ensured in this limit state. SSCs required for basic safety function have to sustain the earthquake loads without loss of function. Operability of NPPs should be ensured after the moderately frequent and not severe earthquakes. Through the years the concept of designing for two earthquakes has radically changed.

    Nowadays, the OBE is interpreted as an operational limit and inspection level rather than an obligatory design level. The changes of the terminology in the German regulation demonstrate the changes in design concept: the former terms SSE - Sicherheitserdbeben and OBE - Auslegungserdbeben were replaced by the terms design base earthquake and inspections earthquake, i.

    Bemessungserdbeben and Inspektionserdbeben.

    The tasks are determined by the objective of the project as it has been shown above, i. Generic objective of the seismic safety programmes is to ensure the basic nuclear safety functions, i. The functions have to be maintained for the earthquakes within the design basis envelope and with some extent for the earthquakes with parameters exceeding the design basis one. The graded approach is used while ensuring the seismic safety of NPPs, i.

    Design of Nuclear Power Plants | Nuclear Safety Info

    Well-defined set of plant systems and structures and components are required to be functional during and after the earthquake for bringing the plant in-to stable shutdown condition. Some of those SSCs are passive, e. They shall sustain the vibratory load remaining leak-tight; however some plastic deformation, ductile behaviour might be allowed. In some cases the deformation has to be limited to the elastic for ensuring some active functions.

    Building structures and equipment supporting structures might be also loaded to plastic region up-to the level, which does not impair the intended safety functions. The active systems functionality requires qualification for the vibratory motion as well as availability of supporting functions, e. Practically, a conscious and careful evaluation and utilisation of the built-in margins provide the possibility for achieving the target safety level at operating plants by feasible amount of modifications and re-qualifications.